Dysphagia is difficulty or discomfort in swallowing food or liquid. The study assessed the efficacy of old and recent rehabilitation techniques in swallowing such as thermal stimulation, electrical stimulation, acupuncture, oral strengthening, air pulses, Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS).

  • Among 5587 articles, only 20 were included in this study.
  • The Philippine Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine recognizes the impact of dysphagia, or impaired swallowing, as a significance alteration in body structure and function post-stroke.
  • According to the Stroke Society of the Philippines, patients should be screened for dysphagia before given any food or drink within the first 24 hours post-ictus, or upon regaining full consciousness and ability to follow command.


  • Based on the study by Nakamura et al. a statistically significant improvement was observed on ice massage in dysphagia scores.
  • The swallowing time, however, was dependent on the location of lesion.
  • Those individuals with nuclear lesions did not experience statistically significant improvements in swallowing time compared to those individuals with supranuclear lesions.

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation both improve swallowing function post-stroke. However, electrical stimulation can improve swallowing function. Acupuncture coupled with electrodiagnostic study can be used to improve swallowing function post-stroke.

Rey-Matias and Leochico, Rehabilitation Techniques in Dysphagia Management among Stroke Patients: A Systematic Review, Int J Phys Med Rehabil 2016, 4:3

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